Monday, September 16, 2019
Planned parenthood is a luxury to the new generation. When our parents had children, it was not a decision; it was a moral Ã¢â¬Å"dutyÃ¢â¬ to society. To further analyze the individual factors of planned parenthood you must draw on the larger religious, social, and economic factors that guide your individual decisions (Mills, 1959). If one considers the broad social factors that shape, influence, and allow individual choices, you are using what C. Wright MillÃ¢â¬â¢s called the Sociological Imagination (Appelbaum and Chambliss, 1997). The insight provided by the Sociological Imagination brings new understanding to this particular event, the planning of parenthood. The choice to bare children was never a topic for conversation in past generations. Religion as an institution had greater influence than it does in modern society. Families of the past were expected to follow religious teaching and were manipulated by the sociological expectations of the family definition. Birth control and abortion were Ã¢â¬Å"tabooÃ¢â¬ and social norms demonstrated the influence of religion in society. Nowadays abortion clinics are common ground and Ã¢â¬Å"the pillÃ¢â¬ is the topic in high school settings. Due to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s norms, most people are not following the old religious standards of Ã¢â¬Å"go forth and multiplyÃ¢â¬ ; they have new wants and desires. Religious beliefs that were the core of cultural values became second to scientific research and renovation. The focus of society shifted from the unknown and unexplained to the known and scientifically proven. Technology and medicine modernized sociological institutions; what was Ã¢â¬Å"tabooÃ¢â¬ became the social norm. The possibility of genetic testing, the development of the birth control pill, and government legislation of Ã¢â¬Å"pro-choiceÃ¢â¬ allow individuals to have choices on parenthood. Technology, which we cannot control as individuals, creates individualism, free will, and personal disclosure from what was once considered a social Ã¢â¬Å"dutyÃ¢â¬ or basic Ã¢â¬Å"human nature.Ã¢â¬ Social roles of men and women have a deep impact on personal decisions as well. Society expected men and women to get married, have children, and live a healthy life as husband and wife. Parenthood was not an option; it was a task in fulfilling your Ã¢â¬Å"social roleÃ¢â¬ (Appelbaum and Chambliss, 1997). Men were Ã¢â¬Å"bread winnersÃ¢â¬ and women Ã¢â¬Å"house makersÃ¢â¬ united by the familyÃ institution. The role of men was to provide the family with comfortable living resources and protect them from harm. They were rough, tough, and above all, had the education to succeed in the workforce. Women were the heart of the family, the nurtures, the caregivers, the mothers and wives. They were neglected the educational resources needed to succeed in the workforce and the bare thought of a working mother was absurd. Now, with the high standards of family life, women are likely to work in order to provide additional family income. Economically, a child is a large strain on finances. This has a large impact on the decision to bear a child. In the past, large families were normal because children were also providers of income; therefore, a large family meant economic security. The family worked to fulfill family needs not family wants. Working-class families did not have the economic opportunity of extra disposable income; they did not have Ã¢â¬Å"luxuriesÃ¢â¬ . The foundation of the family was hard work and unity. Women worked hard in the kitchen, men in the field, and children with household tasks. Parenthood was not an option; it was an extra source of income and survival. Social structures have given way to personal choice. Planned parenthood is the result of structural renovation. One can now sit down and discuss the meaning of being a parent without feeling societyÃ¢â¬â¢s pressure to have a child. The Sociological Imagination enables us to Ã¢â¬Å"grasp at the relationship between our lives as individuals and the larger forces that help shape themÃ¢â¬ (Appelbaum, 2001). It is the interplay of larger social forces that shape the choices individuals make. The decision to bare a child is the result of social-historical renovation that provides us with the notion that we have some control over our fate. Planned parenthood is now an individual choice, not a sociological expectation.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Axel Blaze (ShÃ «ya GÃ enji) is the ace striker and voice of reason of the team. His sister, Yuka is in a coma because of KageyamaÃ¢â¬â¢s interference to stop him from play against Teikoku Academy. He keeps an amulet made by his sister, and makes a promise with her to stop playing soccer, but when he sees that his passion for the game is strong, he changes that promise to become the champion of the Soccer Frontier. Later, Yuka wakes up from a coma, and he began to play soccer more freely with his teammates. Goenji joins up with the others to play against teams around the world. He becomes close friends with Endou, Fubuki, and Kido as the story progresses. Killer Shots * Fire Tornado Spins in mid-air, showing fire coming from his feet, then kicks the ball in mid-air. * Dragon Tornado: the combination of AxelÃ¢â¬â¢s Fire Tornado and KevinÃ¢â¬â¢s Dragon Crash. * Inazuma Drop: Jump high then use the other player as a stepping stone to jump once more then kick the ball in high mid-air. This move was used to give Raimon a 1-0 win against Wild Junior High * Inazuma No.1:Both Mark and Axel kick the ball towards the goal. Was first used in the match against Brainwash Middle High. * Fire Rooster: Kicks the ball up high with Nathan then kicks the ball with Nathan in mid-air releasing six fire wings. * Inazuma No.1 Drop: The Inazuma Drop adding Mark as one of the kickers. * Final Tornado: Combination of Tri-Phoenix and Fire Tornado.This was only used against Zeus Eleven. This move is also called Tri-Phoenix X. * Bakunetsu Storm:The technique that Axel develop when Aliea Academy arc and this technique debut when Inazuma caravan vs Epsilon Remastered * Twin Boost: A move first used by Jude and Eric. Jude kicks the ball to Eric then Eric kick the ball back to Jude for the final kick. A more powerful version of the Twin Boost was used by Jude and Axel. Jude kicks the ball upward then Axel uses Fire Tornado to pass the ball to Jude for the final kick. This is sometimes called Double Boost. * Bakunetsu Screw:The technique that Axel develop during the fight with AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s Big Wave team. It is the evolution of the Bakunetsu Storm with a added spin to the ball. * Tiger Storm: The technique Gouenji and Toramaru created by using Tiger Drive followed up by Bakunetsu Storm. * Grandfire: This technique is used by Gouenji, Toramaru and Kiyama. This was used to topple ArgentiaÃ¢â¬â¢s The Empire impenetrable defense. * Grand Fire Ignition: The ball is kicked by Gouenji, Toramaru and Kiyama. This technique is the evolution of Grand Fire with a more intense flame on the ball.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Alan Chalmers, a British-Australian philosopher of science and best-selling author, suggests a common view of science by which scientific knowledge is Ã¢â¬ËreliableÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëobjectively provenÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge that is derived from facts of experience, experimental procedure and observations. This essay aims to discuss the problems that are likely to be highlighted by a Popperian hypothetico-deductivist when confronted with ChalmersÃ¢â¬â¢ adverse views on the validity of the scientific method. Both Alan Chalmers and Karl Popper Ã¢â¬â renowned for the development of hypothetico-deductivist/falsificationist account of science Ã¢â¬â represent the two major, contradictory theories (falsification and induction) regarding the functionality of science. I will be structuring my argument around these two models and the several complications surrounding the inductivistÃ¢â¬â¢s account of science that are seemingly solved by PopperÃ¢â¬â¢s alternative. In order to gain a thorough understanding of the topic being discussed, let me provide an introduction to inductivism, the issues raised by this method and the falsificationist account that aimed to solve these issues. Introduced by Ancient Greek philosopher, Aristotle (5th century BC), induction is a process that begins with the observation of natural phenomena and ends with the assembly of a scientific law to describe the general regularity of said phenomena. This intuitive process was accepted within the scientific community for centuries yet the basis of AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s method relies entirely on human ability to simply observe natural phenomena, see a pattern and make observational statements. If there were to exist a large number of observational statements that were repeated under several varying circumstances in which no conflicting observation was made, these observational statements could then be promoted to universal or generalised statements that refer to all events of a particular kind given certain conditions (SCIE1000 Lectures Notes, 2014). Now to address the problems associated with this account of the scientific method that might be pinpointed by hypothetico-deductivists when confrontedÃ with ChalmersÃ¢â¬â¢ view: the problem of induction, the questionable objectivity of this method and whether it can provide any certainty about laws that govern our universe. Chalmers states that, Ã¢â¬Å"scientific knowledge is reliable knowledge because it is objectively proven knowledge (Chalmers, 1976).Ã¢â¬ Due to the fact that inductive inferences are based on observations of natural phenomena, a crucial assumption of the uniformity of nature Ã¢â¬â which cannot be proven Ã¢â¬â must be made, meaning that there is always room for contradictory evidence to arise. Similarly, the problem of induction refers to the inability to classify knowledge gained by inductive methods as either a priori (logical or mathematical reasoning, requiring no previous worldly experience) or a posteriori (requires some knowledge of worldly happenings) as the former would be an uninformed, irrational statement and the latter would require knowledge of every possible happening in the universe in order to justify the law at hand. For this reason, there is absolutely no certainty provided by this process, as there is always the probability that future contradictory observations may deem any inductive inference invalid. The weakened principle of inductive inference then states that, at best, the inductivist method gives a probability of an event occurring given specific circumstances (SCIE1000 Lectures Notes, 2014). Chalmers also boldly claims that his common view of science is unquestionably objective and that speculative imaginings play no role in this process; however, there is obvious subjectivity evident in the discovery of scientific hypotheses. The subjectivity of speculative imaginings expressed by an individual experiencing a brief moment of intuitive thought processes allows consideration of an hypotheses that may have otherwise been overlooked. As a response to inductivism and the problems recognized with this method, Karl Popper proposed a knew scientific method that aims to establish the best current Ã¢â¬ËlawÃ¢â¬â¢ available at a given time until it is falsified Ã¢â¬â hypothetico-deductivism or falsification. The name itself, hypothetico-deductivism, explains the process of stating bold, testable Ã¢â¬ËlawsÃ¢â¬â¢/hypotheses and drawing deductive inferences regarding the hypothesisÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to withstand exposure to rigorous testing and attempts to falsifyÃ it. So, rather than attempting to prove the legitimacy of scientific laws fabricated by intuitive induction, falsificationism aims to deduce the best, current law to describe natural phenomena based on the inability to falsify it, therefore making the current provisional law acceptable until a time when it is falsified by conflicting evidence. Falsification effectively trumps the method of induction as it strives to provide information about the world and its Ã¢â¬ËlawsÃ¢â¬â¢ by outlining what they are not rather than making grand generalisations about universal happenings when acknowledging only a portion of the evidence that could possible be out there. Unfortunately, due to the complex nature of science, similarly to inductivism, falsification is not a flawless method. In my opinion however, I find the method of falsification convincingly more rational and commonsensical than inductivism. Due to limitations of space, I will explain briefly one of the few issues associated with falsificationism. The issue at hand that is faced by the method of falsification is that, Ã¢â¬Å"Popper presents cases where one theory is being tested against our experimental data, but hypotheses are tested in groups. When we Ã¢â¬Å"testÃ¢â¬ a theory, we are assuming a lot of other theories in the background (SCIE1000 Lectures Notes, 2014).Ã¢â¬ The issue then is that if anomalous data is encountered, should it be derived that the entire theory Ã¢â¬â consisting of several individual hypotheses Ã¢â¬â is rejected and if not, how is an individual hypothesis isolated from the rest? This rejection of a theory, in my opinion, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have detrimental affects to our understanding of science as this particular theory may be falsified yet the creation of a new, falsifiable theory is not out of the question. Also, unlike Chalmers, however, falsificationism does not claim any degree of certainty or Ã¢â¬ËproofÃ¢â¬â¢ of their claims which compels me to believe that Popper had a greater grasp on the uncertainty that is the universe. Conclusively, PopperÃ¢â¬â¢s response to ChalmersÃ¢â¬â¢ claim that science is reliable due to its objectively proven nature using inductivism would highlight three key issues and propose how his method of falsification solves these issues. The problem of induction that occurs within inductivism Ã¢â¬â the inability to classify inductive inference as either a priori or a posteriori Ã¢â¬â and alsoÃ the assumption of uniformity of nature are abolished in PopperÃ¢â¬â¢s method where all scientific laws have the ability to be falsified upon the observation of new, contradictory evidence. Although falsification is unable to provide any degree of certainty, it does not make bold claims about the workings of the universe that are likely to be uniformed and incorrect. And lastly, objectification is dismissed in falsification, as the method by which a hypothesis was created is irrelevant to whether or not the claim can be provisionally accepted or rejected based on real-world observ ations. Bibliography Chalmers, A. (1976). What is this thing called science?. 1st ed. St. Lucia, Q.: University of Queensland Press. SCIE1000 Lecture Notes (2014). 7th ed. Brisbane: University of Queensland, pp.187-225.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Action Potentials in Squid Axons In 1952, Hodgkin and Huxley published a series of four papers in the Journal of Physiology (London) reporting their experiments to investigate the underlying events of the action potential. In their final paper, they derived a series of equations that describe the relationship between sodium conductance (gNa+), potassium conductance (gK+) and the membrane potential in a squid axon following electrical stimulation. Hodgkin and Huxley were awarded the Nobel Prize for this work. In this practical, you will use a computer program based on the Hodgkin and Huxley equations to show what is happening to the membrane potential, gNa+ and gK+ during and after electrical stimulation. An example of the output from the program is illustrated in figure 1. It can be seen that the electrical stimulation depolarises the membrane. Once a depolarisation of 30mV has occurred, the conductance to sodium ions increases rapidly and the membrane potential rises to +20mV. The rise in gK+ is slower in onset an d lasts for longer than the increase in gNa+. The fall in gNa+ and the associated rise in gK+ returns the membrane potential towards the resting value. Methods and Results Ã Q1 and 2. Investigate the effects of varying stimulus amplitude and duration by running all the simulations shown in the matrix below in Table 1: Enter a Ã¢â¬ËXÃ¢â¬â¢ in the Table 1 matrix for experiments that produce an action potential, and record the peak height, amplitude, latency and threshold of any action potentials in Table 2 overleaf. For experiments that fail to elicit an action potential, enter a Ã¢â¬ËOÃ¢â¬â¢ in the matrix below, and record a value of Ã ¯Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¥ (infinity) for the latency and Ã¢â¬Ë-Ã¢â¬Ë for the other parameters in the table overleaf. Ã Q3. Plot two graphs to show the relationship between: (i) Stimulus strength and latency and (ii) Stimulus duration and latency. How these graphs should be plotted is not immediately obvious, and information on how to complete thi s task will not be explicitly given! The optimal solution to the problem is for you to find, but the following points are provided for guidance: It is not legitimate to plot infinity on graphs It is not appropriate to extrapolate beyond data points It is not legitimate to plot average latencies. The graphs must be plotted so that every value of latency (except Ã ¯Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¥) is represented. Use the blank sheet on the proforma, there is no need to use graph paper. Graph 1 : Stimulus strength and latency Remember you need to distinguish different stim durations in this graph Stimulus Duration (ms) Graph 2: Stimulus Duration and Latency Make sure you distinguish different strengths as well Stimulus Strength (Ã ¯Ã Ã A/cm2) These can be plotted accurately using excel for your submitted report. Experiments with dual stimuli Q4. Run a simulation with the following parameters to demonstrate the absolute refractory period: Ã Briefly describe the responses obtained in simulations A and B in the space below: For simulation A and B in stimulus 1 they had peak heights of +17mv therefore producing an action potential. In stimulus 2, there is very little depolarisation in simulation A as peak height is -92mv. This is lower than the resting potential, therefore showing that the neuron did not fully recover from stimulus1.
Physical Security Clients Assessment (Criminal Justice) - Essay Example insecurity present most intense effects of floods, earthquakes and volcanoes among others just as those that are man-made including civil disturbances, industrial accidents and sabotage. Security forces and those installing security devices therefore need to be armed with adequate skills through vulnerability tests, training and supervision. With the increase in buildings, security and safety become paramount. There are varied risks associated with buildings including disorder, emergencies and crime. The crimes that could be committed in contravention to building security include theft and burglary, property damage including sabotage and graffiti, personal offenses such as elevator assaults, public order offences such as angry interchanges with receptionists and unauthorized access to utilities that could lead to commercial espionage. Disorders encompass behavioral issues such as drug dealing and hostage taking in buildings (Challinger, 2008). Fennelly acknowledges the importance of Ã¢â¬Å"territorial defense strategiesÃ¢â¬ as a way to prevent property related crimes including household larceny, auto theft and break-ins (2004, p.5). The related strategy areas in this case include construction standards, building interior security, building perimeter security and building grounds security. Grounds security would protect against unauthorized entry into sites and inhibits destructive behavior by visitors. Construction standards ensure that the materials and techniques used in construction minimize safety hazards and crimes. Interior security provides a third line of defense by use of physical barriers and surveillance to prevent unauthorized access and ensure security of occupants. Reese and Tong (2010) point out the physical security of federal buildings and include assets of physical security such as closed-circuit television cameras, safety guards and barrier material. Since the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon, there have been
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Evaluation on Mathematics - Term Paper Example Since the 1960s, the mathematic abilities of American Students has been deteriorating compared to those students from other nations. A recent study illustrated that mathematic performance depends more on education and attitude rather than inborn genetic talent (Kimball & Smith, 2013). As such, this particular analysis will focus on the ways in which mathematics is an essential component of the current society and how it is essential that students be effectively trained in math and taught not to simply Ã¢â¬Å"give upÃ¢â¬ if the first attempt (or attempts) were less than satisfactory. Math is objective, so students who do poorly on exams will tend to compare themselves to those who did well; not realizing that those students were well prepared. The dilemma occurs as the under-performing students identify themselves with the phrase, "Im just not good at math". From this point, it may seem the student will use this as a excuse that could decrease their motivation to prepare for math exams. This self-fulfilling prophecy can cause people to avoid approaching math with "perseverance, tenacity, and fearlessness," which is the attitude needed for people to succeed (Schwartz, 2006). Yet, as has been noted previously, the reality of this approach is that it creates generations of students that simply give up on math; rather than coming to appreciate the fact that it is a difficult subject that requires a certain degree of dedication and mastery to successfully understand and apply. In order to encourage the increased levels of dedication that should be reflected within st udents, educators would do well to remind them how fundamental math is and some of the reasons why is will come to be of ever increasing importance if these students would like to attain a well paying job after graduation (Goel & Reid, 2012). One of the first and
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Energy drinks effect - Research Paper Example The main loss of water from the body is due to perspiration According to various studies if one loses water up to two or more percent of ones body weight (water makes 60% of the body weight) due to sweating (If a man/woman weigh 50 Kilograms and if s/he loses one liter sweat), that will lead to a drop in blood volume. This will force the heart to work harder to pump the blood through the arteries. This is the extreme situation of dehydration. This leads to muscle cramps. The functioning of the brain heavily depends on water. Thus dehydration affects the brain leading to fatigue and dizziness. If not re-hydrated immediately this situation may even lead to heat illnesses like Heat Stroke and Heat Exhaustion. In addition to excessive sweating, other causes of dehydration are inadequate fluid intake, failure to replace fluid losses during and after the exercises, working out in dry hot weather, in the open, and drinking only when one is thirsty. There was a time when water was the only or one of the few sources of hydration. But water as a hydrant was found to have a lot of limitations. The major draw back of water as a hydrant is that it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t replace the salts or electrolytes lost during perspiration. Water easily quenches thirst even before the body gets re-hydrated. Only few people like the taste of the water; most find the taste relatively bland. More over, drinking too much water can, though rarely, cause hyponatremia or water intoxication. It was these limitations of water as a hydrant that forced researchers to develop energy drinks especially for sports. Energy drinks or Sports drinks with their typical sweet-tart taste combination donÃ¢â¬â¢t quench thirst. So one is likely to drink larger volumes of energy/ sports drinks, compared to water which helps to maintain a better level of hydration. POSITIVE EFFECTS: Electrolytes or salts and Carbohydrates are the major components of an energy drink or sports drink. Protein is another component