Friday, December 6, 2019

Different Types of Love in Romeo and Juliet free essay sample

The theme of love is predominant throughout the entirety of ‘Romeo and Juliet’. Many forms of love are incorporated throughout the play and displayed through the relationships of different characters. Romantic love between Romeo and Juliet is contrasted by a sensual perception of love in the play, while themes of familial love and friendship are discussed with regards to the superficial and unrequited love Romeo experienced with Rosaline. The theme of superficial love is firstly discussed through Romeo’s unreciprocated affections for Rosaline.After being approached by Benvolio to find out the cause of his grievances, Romeo reveals that ‘(he does) love a woman’ but ‘she will not stay the siege of loving terms’ and reciprocate his feelings for her. ‘With tears augmenting the fresh morning’s dew’, Romeo mopes over Rosaline’s decline of his romantic advances towards her for she ‘hath forsworn to love’. He only emphasizes on her physical attractiveness through the repetition of the word ‘beauty’ but does not delve further to appreciate Rosaline as a person. We will write a custom essay sample on Different Types of Love in Romeo and Juliet or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Romeo harbours a superficial infatuation for Rosaline because ‘she is rich in beauty’ and thus fancies only her physical appearances, but is insincere in getting to know Rosaline despite proclaiming his ‘love’ for her. Another superficial implication of love lies in Lady Capulet’s disposition of love through appearance and as a materialistic property. In convincing Juliet to marry Paris, she speaks favourably of ‘young Paris’ face’ and finds ‘delight writ there with beauty’s pen’.She wishes for Juliet to marry Paris solely for his looks since her believe of love reaps from appearance and is without regards to emotion. When speaking to Juliet about ‘(liking) of Paris’ love’, she declares that ‘by having him’, Juliet ‘shall share all that he doth possess’ and derive possession from marriage. Lady Capulet implies that marriage will secure material possession and benefit s for Juliet, like ‘that in gold clasps locks in the golden story’. She emphasizes on the materialistic wealth marriage will bring but gives little thought about other aspects of love in marriage.Lady Capulet equates love to physical appearances and harbours a superficial idea of love since she only expects to reap materialistic assertion through marriage. Yet another type of love represented in the play is the strong bonds of friendship between Benvolio and Mercutio with Romeo. Benvolio was the first to find out the cause of Romeo’s sadness and urged Romeo to ‘forget to think of (Rosaline)’ and to ‘examine other beauties’ in order for Romeo to recover from his emotional despair. At Romeo’s refusal to forget about Rosaline, Benvolio commits that ‘(he’ll) pay that doctrine, or else die in debt’.He genuinely cares about Romeo’s well-being and is sincere about helping him, even if it means sacrificing his life in the process. In Romeo’s time of melancholy, Benvolio offered advice to Romeo in an attempt to distract him from his infatuation with Rosaline. He makes a painstaking and devoted effort of convincing Romeo to think otherwise of Rosaline’s beauty and is determined to ‘make (Romeo) think thy swan a crow’. He goes as far as endeavouring to change Romeo’s beliefs in rendering his help because he feels that it is the best way to help Romeo.Benvolio has a pragmatic and heartfelt intention in offering his help and support to Romeo and willingly makes sacrifices for him as a thoughtful friend. The love and support bridged in Romeo and Benvolio’s friendship proves itself in Romeo’s sadness through the unbridled support Benvolio offers him. Another instance of friendship in the play lies between Romeo and Mercutio. Unlike Benvolio that tries to console Romeo into forgetting about Rosaline, Mercutio adopts his humorous and practical approach towards love to make Romeo feel better.He is frustrated at Romeo’s depression and scorns Romeo’s mannerisms, advising Romeo to ‘prick l ove for pricking’ and ‘beat love down’. Mercutio tries to make Romeo forget about Rosaline and regain his enthusiasm for love by encouraging and reminding Romeo to become the more powerful force of love. He attempts to make Romeo feel better by calling for Romeo in a joking manner, ‘Romeo! Humours! Madman! Passion! Lover! ’, to lighten the spirit and remove Romeo’s depression through his puns. His display of care and friendship is further expressed when he says ‘my invocation is fair and honest, in his mistress’ name’.As a friend, Mercutio shows his concern for Romeo and disapproves of Romeo’s pursuit or Juliet because of the trouble it will bring Romeo’s family. Despite being bitingly cynical, Mercutio bears Romeo’s well-being in mind in his attempts to comfort Romeo. Both Benvolio and Mercutio try to help Romeo forget about Rosaline and render their support in Romeo’s time of unhappiness. The friendly concern and support between Romeo, Benvolio and Merc utio establishes a clear affirmation of friendship as a type of love in the play. The most evident type of love in Romeo and Juliet is the romantic relationship between the 2 protagonists. An intense passion sprung at Romeo’s first sight of Juliet and he was taken-aback by her beauty, claiming Juliet’s ‘beauty too rich to use, for Earth too dear’. The repetition of ‘too’ emphasizes on Romeo being overwhelmed by Juliet’s beauty and is only capable of noticing her, for her beauty is ‘as a rich jewel in an Ethiop’s ear’. With romantic love, nothing is more beautiful to Romeo than Juliet.He falls for Juliet instantly and humbles himself before her ‘with (his) unworthiest hand’. In the romantic love between Romeo and Juliet, they both idolize one another by referring to each other with a religious vocabulary. To Romeo, Juliet is a ‘holy shrine’ and ‘dear saint’, while Romeo is the ‘god’ of Juliet’s ‘idolatry’. Love is likened to religion and it is of their nature and instinct to devoutly sentimentalize each other to be greater than themselves. Romeo feels that it is only natural like ‘it is the east and Juliet is the sun’.Juliet laments, ‘wherefore art thou Romeo’ and threatens to ‘no longer be a Capulet’ in a profession of her love and sacrifice for Romeo. She chastise that their family name ‘is nor hand nor foot nor arm nor face, nor any other part belonging to a man’. Romeo and Juliet’s romantic love for each other goes beyond name and reputation and their true love transcends societal branding. Juliet views that true love should not be anchored by their family’s feuds and is driven to defy the entire social world in pursuit if Romeo. With love’s light wings’, Romeo climbed the high orchard walls ‘for stony limits cannot hold love out’, suggesting a metaphorical implication that true love is st ronger and more powerful than physical obstructions and triumphs all odds.

Friday, November 29, 2019

Tourism Country Analysis-Germany Essay Essay Example

Tourism Country Analysis-Germany Essay Essay Introduction Germany is a state with amazing diverseness with one of the richest historical heritage in the universe. standing out as one of the tourer attractive force characteristics. Germany is the most centrally placed in Europe among all the European states. It has a history of a disconnected state holding distinguishable provinces and folks. For this ground. Germany more that any other European state bears different names depending on the linguistic communication used. For illustration it is called Deutschland within Germany ; in French it is called ‘Allemagne’ and ‘Niemcy’ in Polish. ( Country profile ) We will write a custom essay sample on Tourism Country Analysis-Germany Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Tourism Country Analysis-Germany Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Tourism Country Analysis-Germany Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer On October 3rd1990. Western Germany was unified with the German Democratic Republic. The leaving criterions in the latter could non process those 1s of the former ; it has been a major challenge to make this because of the built-in industrial endeavor inefficiencies that characterized the German Democratic Republic. Another major factor that has posed challenges include the trouble in East Germany of deciding belongings ownership and the deficiency of substructure and the environmental debasement that occurred during the Communist regulation. ( Berghahn V. R. 1987 ) The radical force particularly from the political right that is normally witnessed in East Germany is ever related to the economic uncertainness in this part. Most times the force is directed towards aliens and in peculiar non-Europeans. ( Berghahn V. R. 1987 ) Politicss Germany is considered to be a Federal. Parliamentary. and representative democratic Republic. The ‘Grundgestz’ or the Basic Law is the model that was laid down in 1949 that guides the German political system up to today. For any amendments to take topographic point in the Grundgestz. a two-thirds bulk in Parliament is required. ( Country profile ) The Chancellor heads the Government and the place is presently held by Angela Merkel and she exercises executive powers that are similar to a Prime Minister’s. Parliament that consists of the Bundestag and Bundesrat ( Federal Council ) is vested with Federal legislative Powers. Members of the Bundestag are elected straight and members in the Bundesrat represent the authoritiess of the 16 provinces. These members are appointed by the province cabinet. which possesses the power to take them any clip. ( Country profile ) The Christian Democratic Party Union and the Social Democratic Party of Germany are the ruling parties since 1949. However there’s being of other smaller parties. which include the Free Democratic Party and the Alliance 90/ The Greens ( Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union ) . The President of Germany besides doubles up as the Head of State and is usually elected by the Federal Convention ( Bundesversammlung ) . which is the establishment made up of members of the Bundestage and some members of the State delegate. The President of the Bundestag is the 2nd highest functionary and the Bundestag itself elects him/her. His/her duties include the overseeing of the body’s day-to-day Sessionss. The Chancellor on the other manus doubles up as the caput of Government and is the 3rd highest functionary who is nominated by the Germany President and so is elected by the Bundestag. A constructive gesture of no assurance by the Bundestag is what is necessary to take the Chancellor. ( Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union ) Economy In Europe. Germany’s National Economy is the largest. It is ranked the 3rd largest in the universe by nominal GDP. but ranked fifth in respects to gross domestic merchandise. As per 2006 statistics. the mean growing stands at 2. 8 % per annum. Germany has been renowned universe over since the industrial age as one of the best motor pioneers and has greatly benefited from the globalized universe economic system. ( Berghahn V. R. 1987 ) One of its major drivers of its export economic system is the hallmark â€Å"Made in Germany. † which the universe has continuously associated with sturdiness and lastingness. This has turned out the state to be the world’s top exporter with the export figures as at 2006 standing at $ 1. 133 trillion bring forthing a trade excess of about ˆ165 billion. 70 % of its entire GDP is generated by the service sector with 29. 1 % contributed by the industrial sector and agribusiness falling behind with about 0. 9 % . ( Berghahn V. R. 1987 ) Germany’s cars. machinery. metals. and chemical goods contribute greatly to the export portfolio. In solar and wind turbine engineering. Germany leads the universe ( Global Wind Energy Market ) . Amongst its most popular trade names include Siemens. Mercedes Benz. BMW. Audi. Volkswagen. Porsche. and Nivea among others. Germany uses the common market currency the Euro and the state stands out as a major advocator for the European Union. Society ( People and Culture ) The bulk German population is made up dwellers of cultural Germans and over 7 million aliens. Majority of the aliens are made up of the so called â€Å"guest workers† who were largely Turkish workers. who in the 1950s and 60s were invited to make full in for the labour deficits. Germany therefore has rather a good figure of cultural Turks. Many political and economic refugees from the universe over particularly the underdeveloped universe choose Germany as a premier finish. ( Country profile ) Germany self-praises of holding one of the world’s highest degrees of instruction with keen technological promotion coupled with an matchless economic productiveness. University registration has steadily risen and has more than tripled since World War II ; the trade and proficient schools that are sponsored by the Federal Republic of Germany back up the universities. The bulk of the population is made up of the in-between category with a per capita income standing at $ 28. 700. this is combined with a comprehensive societal public assistance system that caters for the cosmopolitan medical attention and unemployment attention besides other societal demands. ( Berghahn V. R. 1987 ) Culturally Germany is normally called â€Å"the land of poets and thinkers† ( Wasser J. 2006 ) . Religious and secular currents that have taken topographic point in Europe for a long clip have continuously shaped the German civilization. One of the most celebrated German classical music composers is Ludwig Van Beethoven ( Wasser J. 2006 ) . Geography The geographics of Germany is rich and diverse ranging from the high Alps in the South. the Bavarian field. and the fluxing hills of cardinal Germany to the seashore of the North and Baltic Sea. This makes the country’s countryside scenery worth sing. â€Å"it all expressions like a illumination train landscape packed with the nicest of old towns. medieval houses. Gothic churches and little small towns ; its alien! † ( Country profile ) Global Position Germany has continued to play a really of import function in the formation and the continued strengthening of the European Union and has continued to cultivate a really close relationship with France. One of Germany’s closest Alliess has been the U. S. whose aid was rather priceless during the 1948 Marshall Plan to reconstruct Germany after World War II. Neckties with America have gone to other countries like trade where a more balanced trade relationship has continued to boom. ( Country profile ) Mentions Berghahn. Volker Rolf. ( 1987 ) Modern Germany: Society. Economy. and Politics in the 20ThursdayCentury. 2d erectile dysfunction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union: Retrieved on 6ThursdayMarch 2008 from U. S. Library of Congress: . Global Wind Energy Market 2006-2011. Retrieved on 6ThursdayMarch 2008 from World Wide Web. windtech-international. com: Wasser. Jeremy. ( 2006 ) Spatzle Westerns Spiegel Online International: Retrieved on 6ThursdayMarch 2008 State profile: Germany: Retrieved on 6ThursdayMarch 2008 from hypertext transfer protocol: //news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/world/europe/country_profiles/1047864. short-term memory:

Monday, November 25, 2019

A Fool Knows Best Essay

A Fool Knows Best Essay A Fool Knows Best Essay Nicholas Lipinski Mr. Lauchlan World Literature 28 October 2012 A Fool Knows Best It seems very unlikely that a gravedigger, with no education or sense of knowledge, would have an effect on an intelligent prince. It also seems highly unlikely that a half-dug grave containing skulls, bones, and rotting decay would provide William Shakespeare a perfect opportunity to employ comedy in Hamlet. However, Shakespeare has taken hold of this opportunity to provide a discussion full of jest, remarkable word-play, and clever humor. Using these thematic elements, he forces Hamlet to question â€Å"his inability to recognize how a major way of knowing restricts both his love and his philosophy† (Hunt 141). In other words, Hamlet becomes aware that man is truly the very â€Å"quintessence of dust† (Shakespeare 103) and no matter if the man be a great king or simple peasant, all return to nothing. The comedic value of the gravedigger becomes apparent before he and Prince Hamlet even speak. He sings while digging and Shakespeare’s audience i s in the same state of surprise as Hamlet. â€Å"Has this fellow no feeling of his business?† (Shakespeare 243). The digger seems to have no sense of his work but still eventually gains the respect from Hamlet with his ready tongue and wit. In a humorous dialogue between the two, they discuss what exactly lies in the grave: HAMLET: What man dost thou dig it for? GRAVEDIGGER: For no man, sir. HAMLET: What woman then? GRAVEDIGGER: For none neither. HAMLET: Who is to be buried in't? GRAVEDIGGER: One that was a woman sir, but, rest her soul, she's dead. (Shakespeare 247) The gravedigger, unlike Hamlet, does not see the skulls and bones of the dead the same persons who they once belonged too. Ophelia is no longer a woman; in fact she is dead. The gravedigger has something Hamlet does not; â€Å"his view of experience is truly decorous. He is able to isolate joys and beloved individuals in their own times, not insisting that a past experience be unnaturally superimposed upon the p resent† (Hunt 143). Hamlet wishes death was non-existent and he finds it depressing whereas the gravedigger can acknowledge it with humor. Hamlet cannot accept the natural process until he actually holds a skull in his hand and examines â€Å"what a piece of work [that] is a man† (Shakespeare 101). Hamlet takes the skull of Yorick and examines it, and at this turning point, begins to oppose the play's initial premise of human imperfection. He cannot yet sing while grave-making like the gravedigger, but now the â€Å"custom hath made it in him a property of easiness† (Shakespeare 243). Hamlet’s belief that man is nothing turns to something real. â€Å"He can trace the dust of a world-conqueror until he finds it stopping a bung-hole and without considering a jot too curiously† (Reno 110). The fact that Yorick, someone who played a prominent role in young Hamlet’s life, is now a pile of decay in the dirt has a profound effect on Hamlet. He could be looking at two skulls, one Alexander’s, the world-conqueror, and the other Yorick’s, and he would not be able to tell the difference. All return to nothing. This concept of nothing is very apparent in Ernest Hemingway’s â€Å"A Clean, Well-Lighted Place.† This short story studies the inevitability of death and how there are always two contrasting views present. One view on life is hurried and impatient; not understanding of others. The second view is the opposite. It is patient and wise; knowing that death is near. The elder waiter is a practitioner of the second viewpoint as he reprimands the younger waiter for his rush. â€Å"What is an hour?† asks the older waiter (Hemingway 98). To the elder waiter, time is not important. Time is nothing. Death is the only thing to be certain of. This brings the discussion back to the graveyard where the digger uses time as his ally. Hamlet asks, â€Å"How long is it since [you became a

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Critically assess the relevance of self-esteem to achieve a Essay

Critically assess the relevance of self-esteem to achieve a consistently high performance in sport - Essay Example While this may seem easy for some, for most it is a matter of time and practice. Gaining sufficient self-esteem or self confidence normally takes months or years to develop; and this is in general compounded by achievements and fame that separates an individual from his contemporaries or peers. Although some might say that destiny or fate has something to do with having self-esteem, the actual truth is that athletes who excel in their chosen skills have a very supportive group in the person of their respective coaches and family (parents). In relation to the universal theory, self-esteem is likewise perceived from the expectancy value theory that best describes motivation or stimulus as the main result of a person’s personal principle about his or her actions and the importance they place on the consequence of such actions (Pajares, 1996). To make it simpler, the expectancy value theory regarding self-esteem is that an individual performs an action because he or she has a reas on for doing this. As such the result or outcome of the actions which an individual does is anticipated by the doer making it quite valuable and desirable. Hence the drive or motivation is a factor considered by most as the core behind why particular actions or deeds are sometime carried out. In connection to sports, athletes do their best to constantly perform to perfection or always aim to win in a game. The reason or core behind such motivation is that they will eventually achieve self-esteem by being proud of their performance since everybody who has seen them win their game or achieve a high score will praise them, making them adequately confident that they will win the next game again against their rivals or opponents. In most cases, having experiences in sports generally boosts self-esteem. These experiences often have an impact on the psychological and emotional aspects of athletes since sports does not only mean playing the game, but having social interactions with coaches, teammates, sport officials and parents (Health Promotion, 2008). Hence, self-esteem in addition to its theoretical definition is generally defined as the feeling of having self-respect and confidence. Undeniably, when one feels good about himself or herself, he or she is able to perform well and cope up with the stresses of having to win or lose after a game. Being able to deal with winning or losing in sports can have the positive effects: 1) reduced anxiety, 2) an optimistic perception of life, 3) deal with societal pressures, 4) avoid engaging in drugs, and 5) have lesser interpersonal dilemmas (Health Promotion, 2008). However, athletes or children active in sports who possess a pessimistic or negative self-esteem will usually end up engaging in drugs, have eating disorders, are bullied socially and are often depressed (Health Promotion, 2008). The coaches and parents as mentioned earlier play a vital role in the lives of individuals (children or young athletes) who are regular ly engage in sport activities. These people can help improve sports performance since they provide support and encouragement for the development of a skill and help build a positive social perception. A coach-athlete relationship requires shared respect that will aid in the development

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Altar Cross, 12th century Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Altar Cross, 12th century - Research Paper Example The history of Altar Cross is associated with the Abbey of Bury Saint Edmunds. The Altar Cross is the only handy item of religious significance which contains brief historic record and expression of the followers. The five pieces of walrus tusk integrate to form Altar Cross which contains ninety-two figures and ninety-eight inscriptions. The inscriptions on the Altar Cross revealed the hatred shared by Jews against Jesus; this cross contains certain statements and inscriptions against Jesus. The historic facts indicate that strong resentment which prevailed among the dwellers in England, and is evidence of the anti-Semitism in the English society. The origin of this cross is with the time frame of 12th century, because it was in 13th century when the Jewish were expelled from England. The Altar Cross was reunited with the central plague in fourteenth-century. A group of historian believe that Altar Cross has Catalan or Aragonese origin. The paintings of the few Italians in the period of Medieval and Renaissance confirmed the existence of the crosses in the churches. These crosses were installed in the churches as mark of respect for Jesus. The Altar Cross has been â€Å"installed upon pedestal in the centre of the altar" (Benson, 2003); this position is regarded because of its supreme importance. The cross is widely popular among the followers, and is regarded as "simple in design and inexpensive, or most elaborate and valuable" (Benson, 2003). The Altar Cross depicts the history of Christianity, and the brutality experienced by the Christians under Jewish command. Christianity has remained victim of desolation, terror, abuse and anguish; the Altar Cross is the symbolic representation of all these acts of violence faced by Christians and validates the vigour, zeal and courage with which the community fought and emerged victorious. The inexpensive Altar Cross is made of "wood, brass, bronze, copper and pewter" (George, 2003). However with

Monday, November 18, 2019

Strategic Planning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 2

Strategic Planning - Essay Example Tesco has been successful in expanding the growth of its business through entering into joint venture with other large retail companies all over the world. (Leahy, 2007: 41) As of 2008, the company was able to establish a total of 12 international businesses which serves the market of Hungary, Thailand, Malaysia, Japan, South Korea, Turkey, United Kingdom, Central Europe, Czech Republic, Poland, and the United States among others. (Leahy, 2007: 42 – 43; Couch, 2006; Wilson, 2005) In early part of 2007, the company entered into a joint venture with Tin Cao who owns a little more than 50 Hymall-branded hypermarkets. (Hawkes, 2008; China Daily, 2008; Baijia, 2007) Tesco’s joint venture in China is known as the ‘Happy Shopper Hymall.’ The company was able to increase its sales by 13% to  £7.6 billion in 2006. (Times Online, 2006) In line with the success behind Tesco China, its top management believes that the said strategic move will enable the company to serve a more lucrative market in Shanghai, China. With regards to Tesco’s current expansion in the Chinese market, the researcher will seek to identify and evaluate the key stakeholders of the joint venture between Tesco and Tin Cao. Eventually, the impact of the joint venture agreement in terms of its competitive position in the chinese market will be discussed thoroughly. Based on the past retailing experiences of Tesco in the UK market, the researcher will make use of the PESTLE as well as the opportunities and threat analysis model as part of determining and examining the potential external factors that could significantly affect the business expansion of Tesco in China. Prior to the conclusion, the identified value adding activities that may contribute to the success of Tesco in China will be highlighted. Aside from the employee of Tesco Group, Tin Cao owned Hymall-branded hypermarkets and

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Causes of Conflict in DRC

Causes of Conflict in DRC INVESTIGATING THE CAUSES OF CONFLICT IN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO (DRC) Location of the D R Congo Background The Congo is situated at the heart of the west-central portion of sub-Saharan Africa. DR Congo borders the Central African Republic and Sudan on the North; Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi on the East; Zambia and Angola on the South; the Republic of the Congo on the West; and is separated from Tanzania by Lake Tanganyika on the East. The country enjoys access to the ocean through a 40-kilometre (25 mile) stretch of Atlantic coastline at Muanda and the roughly nine-kilometer wide mouth of the Congo river which opens into the Gulf of Guinea. The country straddles the Equator, with one-third to the North and two-thirds to the South. The size of Congo, 2,345,408square kilometers (905,567sqmi), is slightly greater than the combined areas of Spain, France, Germany, Sweden, and Norway. It is the third largest country (by area) in Africa. In order to distinguish it from the neighboring Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is often referred to as DR Congo, DRC, or RDC, or is called Congo-Kinshasa after the capital Kinshasa (in contrast to Congo-Brazzaville for its neighbour). The name Congo refers to the river Congo, also known as the river Zaire. (The river name Congo is related to the name of the Bakongo ethnic group). As many as 250 ethnic groups have been identified and named. The most numerous people are the Kongo, Luba, and Mongo. Although seven hundred local languages and dialects are spoken, the linguistic variety is bridged both by widespread use of French and intermediary languages such as Kongo, Tshiluba, Swahili, and Lingala. The Congo is the worlds largest producer of cobalt ore, and a major producer of copper and industrial diamonds. It has significant deposits of tantalum, which is used in the fabrication of electronic components in computers and mobile phones. In 2002, tin was discovered in the east of the country, but, to date, mining has been on a small scale. Katanga Mining Limited, a London-based company, owns the Luilu Metallurgical Plant, which has a capacity of 175,000 tonnes of copper and 8,000 tonnes of cobalt per year, making it the largest cobalt refinery in the world. After a major rehabilitation program, the company restarted copper production in December 2007 and cobalt production in May 2008. The United Nations 2007 estimated the population at 62.6 million people, having increased rapidly despite the war from 46.7 million in 1997. Currently the Head of State is President Joseph Kabila (October 2006-) and Head of government is Prime Minister Antoine Gizenga (December 2006-). Provinces and territories Formerly the country was divided into eleven provinces, Kinshasa, Province Orientale, Kasaà ¯ Oriental, Kasaà ¯ Occidental, Maniema, Katanga, Sud-Kivu, Nord-Kivu, Bas-Congo, Équateur and Bandundu. However, the constitution approved in 2005 divided the country into 26 fairly autonomous provinces, including the capital, Kinshasa to be formed by 18 February 2009. These are subdivided into 192 territories. Provinces and their Capital Cities Province Capital 1. Kinshasa Kinshasa 2. Kongo central Matadi 3. Kwango Kenge 4. Kwilu Kikwit 5. Mai-Ndombe Inongo 6. Kasaà ¯ Luebo 7. Lulua Kananga 8. Kasaà ¯ oriental Mbuji-Mayi 9. Lomami Kabinda 10. Sankuru Lodja 11. Maniema Kindu 12. Sud-Kivu Bukavu 13. Nord-Kivu Goma Province Capital 14. Ituri Bunia 15. Haut-Uele Isiro 16. Tshopo Kisangani 17. Bas-Uele Buta 18. Nord-Ubangi Gbadolite 19. Mongala Lisala 20. Sud-Ubangi Gemena 21. Équateur Mbandaka 22. Tshuapa Boende 23. Tanganyika Kalemie 24. Haut-Lomami Kamina 25. Lualaba Kolwezi 26. Haut-Katanga Lubumbashi History of the DR Congo Conflict The state of DR Congo emerged from brutal colonial history. From 1880s, Belgian King Leopold II used territory as personal kingdom, exploiting vast natural resources through indigenous forced labour. Leopold transferred control of â€Å"Congo Free State† to Belgian government 1908. After upsurge of nationalist sentiment and parliamentary elections May 1960, Belgium accepted independence June 1960. Within two weeks, country faced nationwide army mutiny and secessionist movements in Katanga and southern Kasai. Cold War interests fuelled tensions, with U.S. fearing Congos break-up and Soviet inroads. Power struggle between President Joseph Kasavubu and PM Patrice Lumumba intensified when Lumumba used army to brutally (but unsuccessfully) suppress Kasaian rebellion and appealed for Soviet support. Kasavubu dismissed Lumumba, who was later arrested and 1961 assassinated with Belgian complicity. UN troops began disarming Katangan rebels August 1961 but situation deteriorated into sporadic conflict between UN and Katangan forces. Head of breakaway Katanga Moise Tshombe forced out 1963, returning as Congos prime minister 1964. Colonel Joseph Desire Mobutu ousted Kasavubu and Tshombe in 1965 and began thirty-two year rule. In 1971-2 he changed the countrys name to Zaire. Mobutu systematically used countrys mineral wealth to consolidate power, co-opt rivals and enrich himself and allies through patronage. Following the end of Cold War, cessation of international aid and internal pressure to democratise pushed him to reinstate multiparty politics in 1991, but Mobutu manipulated agreement to retain power. Mobutu was finally ousted in May 1997 by rebellion under Laurent Kabilas leadership, backed by Rwanda and Uganda. Second war The Second Congo War, also known as Africas World War and the Great War of Africa, began in August 1998 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly called Zaire), and officially ended in July 2003 when the Transitional Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo took power (though hostilities continue to this day). The largest war in modern African history, it directly involved eight African nations, as well as about 25armed groups. By 2008 the war and its aftermath had killed 5.4million people, mostly from disease and starvation, making the Second Congo War the deadliest conflict worldwide since World War II. Millions more were displaced from their homes or sought asylum in neighboring countries. War sparked again in August 1998 when Kabila moved to purge Rwandans from government. Rwandan troops backing Congolese Tutsi rebels invaded. Kabila called on Zimbabwe, Angola and Namibia for help. It is estimated that 4 million people died in during this conflict between 1998-2004, mostly from war-related diseases and starvation. A Lusaka ceasefire signed July 1999 and UN Security Council peacekeeping mission (MONUC) was authorised in 2000. Laurent Kabila was assassinated January 2001 and replaced by son Joseph. Peace negotiations resulted in Rwandan and Ugandan withdrawal in late 2002, but proxies remained. In December 2002, all Congolese belligerents and political groups signed peace deal in Sun City, South Africa, ushering in transitional government June 2003 in which Kabila shared power with four vice-presidents. However, conflict in Ituri, North Kivu, South Kivu and Katanga provinces continued. Rebel groups, including former Rwandan-backed Tutsi and Hutu militias (Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) being largest), continued to fight for land and resources. Violence in north eastern Ituri halted 2003 after three-month French-led emergency mission under EU authority, after UN failed to contain clashes. Deaths and displacements led UN to describe Eastern Congo as â€Å"worlds worst humanitarian crisis† March 2005. Following DRC government request International Criminal Court (ICC) investigate crimes from June 2002 throughout DRC, ICC Prosecutor opened investigation into crimes in Ituri June 2004. Government and MONUC security efforts, undermined by lack of progress in establishing integrated national army, reinvigorated September 2004 by force expansion from 10,800 to 16,700 and more aggressive mandate. From March 2005, MONUC often participated in joint operations with integrated national army. But despite significant demobilisation, many rebel groups still active 2006. Uganda rebel group Lords Resistance Army (LRA) settled in north east late 2005, reigniting tensions: Kampala threatened to pursue LRA into Congo, while Kinshasa suspected Uganda sought access to resources in east. International Court of Justice 2005 found Ugandan army committed human rights abuses and illegally exploited Congolese natural resources. New constitution introducing president/prime minister power sharing and two-term presidential limit was adopted 13 May 2005 and approved by referendum 18 December. After delays, national assembly and first-round presidential elections held 30 July 2006. Violent clashes erupted in Kinshasa between Kabila and opposition MLC leader Jean-Pierre Bemba supporters when neither gained majority in first-round votes. Kabila took presidency in 29 October second round (58 per cent of vote), and his alliance won majority in national and provincial assemblies. Elections considered by outside observers to be relatively free and fair, ushering in first truly democratic government 40 years. Kabila government faces substantial challenges, including an abusive and ill-disciplined national army (FARDC), corrupt public administration, and lack of infrastructure and basic services. Advances in Ituri remain precarious, with slow progress on militia disarmament and reintegration and lack of transparent natural resource management. Security further deteriorated in North Kivu, where the national army and dissidents under command of General Laurent Nkunda (CNDP, National Congress for the Defence of the People Nkundas political movement, unveiled July 2006) resumed fighting from late November 2006, displacing up to 400,000 in years since. Signing of Nairobi Agreement November 2007 and Goma â€Å"Actes dEngagement† January 2008 were welcomed. The Former provided for repatriation of FDLR and latter for ceasefire and voluntary demobilisation of combatants in east, to be implemented through â€Å"Amani† peace program. Success depends on will of militias to disengage, continued funding for the Amani program and improved relations between Kigali and Kinshasa over handling of FDLR. But despite some initial signs of Nkundas readiness to disengage, serious clashes between CNDP and FARDC continued, while June 2008 brought heavy FDLR attacks on civilian camps in North Kivu. Political pluralism has shrunk, with opposition virtually excluded from governorships despite performance in 2006 elections, recurrent use of force against Bembas supporters, and death of over 100 civilians in March 2008 brutal police crackdown on political-cultural movement Bundu dia Kongo in Bas-Congo. The ICC has issued five arrest warrants for DRC leaders and four are in ICC custody three militia leaders charged with crimes in Ituri, and Bemba who was arrested May 2008 for atrocity crimes committed 2002-2003 in neighbouring CARs civil war and transferred to The Hague 4 June 2008. Nkunda resisted hand over of fifth suspect, CNDP chief of staff Bosco Ntaganda, wanted for Ituri crimes. But credibility and future of ICC investigations under question after judges suspended first trial, of UPC militia leader Thomas Lubanga in June 2008 over prosecutions non-disclosure of potentially exculpatory evidence. Recent-Current situation in Congo  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A deal concluded between Kabila and rebel commander Laurent Nkunda providing for the integration of Nkundas troops into the armed forces known as mixage collapsed in 2007 amid opposition from hardliners on both sides. Kabilas aides attacked him over perceived preferential treatment given to Tutsis in army integration, drawing on public outcry over massive human rights violations caused in Nkundas operations against the FDLR to undermine the deals legitimacy. Nkundas Goma-based Tutsi backers, afraid of losing everything acquired during the war, threatened to pull their support. The mixage process and its collapse left Nkunda militarily strengthened and removed a viable alternative to continued struggle. After frequent clashes in the first half of 2008, violence again engulfed the region from late August, when Nkundas CNDP rebels launched a fresh offensive on army bases and areas under the formal protection of UN troops. After significant advances and the collapse of the FARDC in the region, the CNDP took control of Rutshuru town in late October, moved to the outskirts of the regional capital Goma and consolidated their hold over the surrounding region. For a short time, UN peacekeeping troops (MONUC) found themselves the last protection against Nkundas advances on Goma. A 29 October ceasefire soon faltered, and clashes continued throughout November (2008). Partially due to an intense diplomatic effort, Nkunda put on hold his offensive on the city, while still continuing and consolidating advances in other areas. International and regional diplomatic efforts commenced from late October, 2008. An EU mission led by the French and British foreign ministers arrived in Congo and Rwanda on 31 October, while African leaders joined by UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon met at an emergency summit of the African Union, calling for immediate adherence to the 29 October ceasefire. The UN Security Councils decision to appoint a special envoy former Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo added welcome focus and commitment to mediation. International leaders met in Nairobi on 7 November (2008) and called for the immediate implementation of the Goma and Nairobi agreements, establishing a facilitation team composed of Obasanjo and former Tanzanian President Mkapa. The new mediators met with key players over November, securing Nkundas commitment to a ceasefire in the middle of the month, although clashes erupted again shortly afterwards. In February 2009, Rwanda arrested Nkunda though it has not yet handed him o ver. Recent developments also underscored the fragility of the situation in Ituri. October 2008 saw fresh clashes between government and rebel forces as well as a series of brutal attacks and abductions reportedly by Ugandan Lords Resistance Army rebels. Causes of the Congo conflict Leopold and Belgium colonial occupation Like most African nations, the problems in Congo in the recent past have their tap root in the colonial activities by mainly European nations. The Congo possessed an uncharacteristic wealth that made it the desire of many European countries (Lusignan: 2004). It had an abundance of natural resources such as cooper, gold, diamonds, rubber, cobalt, among others that made it the desire of many trading corporations and companies. At the Berlin Conference in 1885, King Leopold was granted to the exclusive right to privately exploit the Congo.  Ã‚   Once in the Congo, Leopold devised an economic system in which the Congo was sectioned into different areas leased to different European corporations that paid Leopold 50 percent of the extracted wealth. Lusigan (2004) writes that Leopold entered the Congo under the cloak and faà §ade of a humanitarian by making hollow promises detailing his intentions to improve the quality of life in the Congo.   He promised to build schools, homes, and to liberate the Congolese people from Arab slave traders.   But under the rule of Leopold, very little was done to improve the well being of the citizens, and instead a regime was instituted that operated solely through force of might.   People were tortured and forced to sign treaties that according to Leopold â€Å"†¦must grant us everything† (Hochschild 71), which included the rights to all land and resources therein.   Thus for a 20 year period, Leopold was able to operate with impunity, and in the process 10 million people were murdered.  Ã‚   During his reign, women and children were brutally raped and murdered and treated like animals. â€Å"They were fed-and slept-in the royal stables.†(Hochschild 176)   They were even hunted like animals for fun and for sport.   Limb amputation was a joy of many Belgium soldiers; hands, heads, and other body were severed for not only proof of kill, but for the cannibalis tic needs of these Belgium soldier.   Even the homes of some Belgium officers were lined with the skulls of the Congolese people for decoration.  Ã‚   Many more died from starvation and exhaustion resulting from the inhumane living conditions present in the Congo. After King Leopold relinquished his position in the Congo, the Belgium parliament assumed legal control of the country, but the trading corporations and companies of Belgium and other European countries continued to dominate the course of events in the Congo. â€Å"The one major goal not achieved, he (Morel) acknowledged, was African ownership of land.† (Hochschild 273)  Ã‚   The Congos wealth of natural resources had always been the main attraction of Belgium, and with Leopold removed, the corporations were given more control and influence over the economy in the Congo.   The United Mines of Upper Katanga (UMHK) was founded shortly after Leopolds reign ended and for the next fifty years, this corporation exercised the greatest influence and control over the economy and the resources with the Congo.   It â€Å"controlled about 70 percent of the economy of the Belgian Congoand controlled the exploitation of cobalt, copper, tin uranium and zinc in mines which were among t he richest in the world.†( Hochschild 31) During this time period, the Congo was one the worlds largest copper-producing countries and the â€Å"cobalt extraction in Katanga represented 75 percent of the entire world production.† (Hochschild 31) In June of 1960, the Congo was granted independence, which threatened the future of European economic control of this profitable source of revenue. The United Nations granted independence to the Congo because of pressure from the worldwide anti-colonial movement that touched Africa in the 1950s. But shortly after the Congos independence, Belgium immediately sent troops to the country in order to protect Katanga, the city in the Congo that possessed a wealth of resources and was the primary export site for these corporations.  Ã‚   With this military presence, the corporations continued their production in the city, and surprisingly, production even increased in the year of independence.   This military presence remained in the Congo for years, thus showing the Congolese people were never truly granted â€Å"independence†.  Ã‚   The entitlement complex of Belgium is further revealed here because Belgium believed that they possessed personal ownership of the land in the Congo, and that the citizens of the Congo did not warrant independence.   Belgium regarded the citizens of the Congo as an inferior people who lacked civilization; they believed that the occupation was justified. This denial of own land and resources, injustice, brutal acts and all other in human acts by Leopold and the Belgians groomed anger, resentment, feelings of discontent among the citizens of Congo that was later to be manifested in counter resistances and civil wars against any one who seemed to portray similar acts and policies, hence, conflicts in the Congo.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Assassination of Patrice Lumumba The emergence of an independent Congo on June 30, 1960 marked the beginning of a new era of colonialism by the Western powers.   On this day, Patrice Lumumba became Prime Minister of the Congo, and in six months he would be assassinated. He was an extraordinary politician, motivator, and visionary, and one of the most influential figures throughout Africa during his term.   He is now enshrined as an historical figure against the fight of injustice because of his outspokenness against the colonization of Africa by European powers (Lusigan: 2004). Lumumba came to power at a time in which the anti-colonial movement was most intense worldwide; this propelled his general regard as a worldwide leader of this movement. The period â€Å"†¦from 1960 to 1965, was the Wests ultimate attempt to destroy the continents authentic independent development.† (Kanza xxv)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Before serving as Prime Minister, Lumumba was the president of the National Congolese Movement, a party formally constituted in 1958.   He was an ambitious man and envisioned a promising future for the Congo; a future void of European involvement and one in which the Congolese people had absolute power. He was already a prominent figure in the political scene within the Congo, having amassed a following through his writings and speeches advocating sovereignty and the fight against European injustice.   Lumumba eventually became prime minister through democratic elections, but his government only lasted for a very difficult period of two months during which time Belgium launched many attempts to reoccupy and subvert the independence movement. Patrice Lumumba represented a formidable opponent against the colonization forces in Africa. By advocating sovereignty and de-colonization in Africa, he represented everything that the Western powers feared. He was a man capable of affecting change throughout not only the Congo, but across Africa by promoting a self-sustained economy that was entirely independent from the European nations. He opposed the forces of colonialism throughout Africa. The riches of the Congo and the presence of Lumumbas movement could not be allowed to co-exist in the view of the United States and European political and business interests. Lumumba eventually became the victim of a coup funded primarily by the United States and Belgium, under the protection of the United Nations.   Although the United States and Belgium were the primary opponents of Lumumba, they were acting on behalf of European countries throughout the world because Lumumba personified the anti-colonial movement that everyone feared. They feared Lumumba not simply because he was a man that represented the anti-colonial movement, but because he was an African man that had become too powerful and had the potential to gain the loyalty and attention of his people and focus their goals on true independence and real control of their own resources. â€Å"The Congo crisis is due to just one man, Patrice Lumumba† (Hochschild 49) He had the potential to change the entire social structure of Africa and possessed the ability to affect change throughout the world by promoting democracy and equality.   Probably if Lumumba had lived a little longer, he would have organized and united the nation to avoid the conflicts that have characterized the country ever since time memorial. Poor Centralized governance of mobutu (dictatorship and exploitation of resources) For the next thirty years following the death of Lumumba, the Congo was the victim of a centralized government with the majority of the power concentrated in one man, General Mobutu, who was an instrumental Congolese collaborator with the Western interests in promoting the coup leading to the assassination of Lumumba. Kaplan (1979) notes that Mobutu created a rigidly centralized administration reminiscent of Belgian rule, topped by a single authority figure that he claimed to be in the African political tradition.   Governing by decree, his words literally were law.   His power was absolute, anchored in a constitution of his own inspiration that made him head of the legislative, executive, and judiciary This was not the type of free democratic society that Lumumba had envisioned, but instead one that still allowed many European nations to exercise the authority and influence that Lumumba vehemently opposed. The United States gave him well over a billion dollars in civilian and military aid during the three decades of his rule; European powers- especially France-contributed more (Hochschild 303)/   Mobutu did little to improve the quality of life of his citizens, and instead exploited his own citizens for his material and economic gain. Even after independence, the Congo was still the economic colony of Europe that existed under the control of Belgium. The European and American corporations and investments were still intact with Mobutu in control.   The Congo was now operating as a puppet government in which the United States used Mobutu to affect both economic and political decisions in an effort to stabilize its investments and operations in the country.   It estimated that a t the end of his reign, he was of the worlds wealthiest men; â€Å"his personal peak was estimated at $4 billion.† (Hochschild 303)   And very little of his fortune went to the people of the Congo. One will therefore be short sighted not to blame Mobutu for the conflicted Congo. He did his best to disorganize and disintegrate the countrys internal economic and political structures and systems that laid ground for what was termed as the â€Å"Africas World War†. His puppetism to western countries only resurrected and reminded the Congolese of the harsh, brutal and inhuman rule of Leopold and the Belgians which escalated the anger among the citizens. Mobutu can further be solely held responsible for the greed and mismanagement of natural resources for selfish needs among the Congolese today, he set a bad example. Ethnic differences One of the most sensitive areas of social life in Africa is the problem of cultural pluralism, which usually rears its ugly face in inter-ethnic relations International conflicts and civil wars, these are not simply products of failed diplomacy or policies of aggression. Virtually they all have roots in endemic cultural features of nations (Aluko: 2003). Patterns of languages, religious beliefs and legal institutions form as much a part of the environment enveloping nations have been tales of woes, anguish, sorrows, deprivations, sadness in most of the member states. Many nations of the continent such as Nigeria, Sudan, Somalia, Angola, Liberia and Sierra Leone, and even many nations of the great lakes region of the central Africa have been in turmoil due to ethnic related reasons. Political instability, economic and social disequilibrium became rampant in countries like Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and the two Congos. Most ethnic conflicts have a background of domination, injustice or oppression by one ethnic group or another. The tremendous psychological pressure on human populations from political change creates a sense of anxiety that frequently makes people seek refuge in belief systems that involve definitions of membership and belonging. In Sudan, Garang charged that civil war erupted largely because Hassan Turabi, the power behind Khartoums government, wanted to impose Sharia, or Islamic law throughout Sudan. The other factor relates to resources and economics. At the simplest level, the struggle to survive can spawn or deepen ethnic problem. The more limited the resources the greater the danger of ethnic problem. For a range of reasons not necessarily bad or intentionally divisive, ethnic groups are also often positioned differently in an economy. Again, change can accentuate differences, triggering hostility or drastic action. The legacy of Colonialism did not do any better. The problems of most colonial nations of Africa are direct products of their colonial experience. The problems had been created by colonialism in different ways, especially by the indiscriminate merger of various ethnic groups to become monolithic entities, and at the same time treated the units as separate entities and allowed each to develop in whatever direction it chose in isolation from others (Nnoli, 1980. Dare 1986 and Young, 1998). This was the trend in virtually all the Anglophone countries of the sub-Sahar an Africa and some Francophone countries too. Colonialism also created structural imbalances within the colonies in terms of socioeconomic projects, social development and establishment of administrative centres. This imbalance deepened antipathies between ethnic groups. In Nigeria, the South achieved a higher level of social development than the North. Similarly, the Baganda advanced farther than the other Uganda ethnic groups, the Chagga and Haya were ahead of the other Tanzanian groups, the Kikuyu, Ashanti and Bemba made more rapid â€Å"progress† than the other Kenyan, Ghanaian and Zambian ethnic groups respectively. In fact, inter-ethnic relations in Kenya have been characterized by the hostility of all the other groups to the Kikuyu. Today, many nations of the sub-Saharan Africa are in one turmoil, violence or civil disorder of one kind or the other largely originating from the ethnic problem. Such countries include Burundi, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Angola, Chad and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Congolese people are made up of around 200 separate ethnic groups. These ethnic groups generally are concentrated regionally and speak distinct languages. There is no majority ethnic group some of the largest ethnic groups are the Luba, Kongo and Anamongo. The various ethnic groups speak many different languages but only four indigenous languages have official status Kiswahili, Lingala, Kikongo and Tshiluba. French is the language of government, commerce and education. Societal discrimination on the basis of ethnicity is widely practiced by members of virtually all ethnic groups and is evident in private hiring and buying patterns and in patterns of de facto ethnic segregation in some cities (GS: 2000-9). The ongoing conflict in the Eastern part of DR Congo has often been explained as be